We have 4 fishes in each tank. We have 4 tanks in sector Gamma. We have 4 sharks in sector Gamma.

The rest of the video describes two related approaches for carrying out the counting. Often when I run into complex counting problems, I like to do a sanity check using brute force computation to make sure I have not missed anything. `Julia`

is fantastic choice for doing such computation. It has `C`

like speed, and with an expressiveness that rivals many other high level languages.

Without further ado, here is the Julia code I used to verify my solution the problem.

function unique_combs(n=4)

pat_lookup=Dict{String,Bool}()

for i=0:10^n-1

d=digits(i,10,n) # The digits on an integer in an array with padding

ds=d |> sort |> join # putting the digits in a string after sorting

get(pat_lookup,ds,false) || (pat_lookup[ds]=true)

`end`

println("The number of unique digits is $(length(pat_lookup))")

`end`

In `line 2`

we create a dictionary that we will be using to check if the number fits a previously seen pattern. The loop starting in `line 3`

, examines all possible ordered combinations. The `digits`

function in `line 4`

takes any integer and generate an array of its constituent digits. We generate the unique digit string in `line 5`

using pipes, by first sorting the integer array of digits and then combining them in a string. In `line 6`

we check if the pattern of digits was seen before and make use of quick short short-circuit evaluation to avoid an `if-then`

statement.

`Julia`

calling `C`

. It mimics how one would go about writing `C`

code, wrapping it a library and then calling it from Julia. Today I came across and even more minimal way of doing that while reading an excellent blog on Julia’s syntactic loop fusion. Associated with the blog was notebook that explores the matter further.
Basically, you an write you `C`

in a string and pass it directly to the compiler. It goes something like

C_code= """ double mean(double a, double b) { return (a+b) / 2; } """ const Clib=tempname() open(`gcc -fPIC -O3 -xc -shared -o $(Clib * "." * Libdl.dlext) -`, "w") do f print(f, C_code) end

The `tempname`

function generate a unique temporary file path. On my Linux system `Clib`

will be string like `"/tmp/juliaivzRkT"`

. That path is used to generate a library name `"/tmp/juliaivzRkT.so"`

which will then used in the `ccall`

:

julia> x=ccall((:mean,Clib),Float64,(Float64,Float64),2.0,5.0) 3.5

This approach would be be recommended if are writing anything sophisticated in `C`

. However, it fun to experiment with for short bits of `C`

code that you might like to call from Julia. Saves you the hassle of creating a `Makefile`

, compiling, etc…

I thought it would be fun to try solving it using Julia’s award winning JuMP package. Before we get started, please watch the above video-you might want to pause at 2:24 if you want to solve it yourself.

To attempt this problem in Julia, you will have to install the `JuMP`

package.

julia> Pkg.add("JuMP")

`JuMP`

provides an algebraic modeling language for dealing with mathematical optimization problems. Basically, that allows you to focus on describing your problem in a simple syntax and it would then take care of transforming that description in a form that can be handled by any number of *solvers*. Those solvers can deal with several types of optimization problems, and some solvers are more generic than others. It is important to pick the right solver for the problem that you are attempting.

The problem premises are:

1. There are 50 creatures in total. That includes sharks outside the tanks and fish

2. Each SECTOR has anywhere from 1 to 7 sharks, with no two sectors having the same number of sharks.

3. Each tank has an equal number of fish

4. In total, there are 13 or fewer tanks

5. SECTOR ALPHA has 2 sharks and 4 tanks

6. SECTOR BETA has 4 sharsk and 2 tanks

We want to find the number of tanks in sector GAMMA!

Here we identify the problem as mixed integer non-linear program (MINLP). We know that because the problem involves an integer number of fish tanks, sharks, and number of fish inside each tank. It also non-linear (quadratic to be exact) because it involves multiplying two two of the problem variables to get the total number or creatures. Looking at the table of solvers in the JuMP manual. pick the `Bonmin`

solver from `AmplNLWriter`

package. This is an open source solver, so installation should be hassle free.

julia> Pkg.add("AmplNLWriter")

We are now ready to write some code.

using JuMP, AmplNLWriter # Solve model m = Model(solver=BonminNLSolver()) # Number of fish in each tank @variable(m, n>=1, Int) # Number of sharks in each sector @variable(m, s[i=1:3], Int) # Number of tanks in each sector @variable(m, nt[i=1:3]>=0, Int) @constraints m begin # Constraint 2 sharks[i=1:3], 1 <= s[i] <= 7 numfish[i=1:3], 1 <= nt[i] # Missing uniqueness in restriction # Constraint 4 sum(nt) <= 13 # Constraint 5 s[1] == 2 nt[1] == 4 # Constraint 6 s[2] == 4 nt[2] == 2 end # Constraints 1 & 3 @NLconstraint(m, s[1]+s[2]+s[3]+n*(nt[1]+nt[2]+nt[3]) == 50) # Solve it status = solve(m) sharks_in_each_sector=getvalue(s) fish_in_each_tank=getvalue(n) tanks_in_each_sector=getvalue(nt) @printf("We have %d fishes in each tank.\n", fish_in_each_tank) @printf("We have %d tanks in sector Gamma.\n",tanks_in_each_sector[3]) @printf("We have %d sharks in sector Gamma.\n",sharks_in_each_sector[3])

In that representation we could not capture the restriction that “no two sectors having the same number of sharks”. We end up with the following output:

We have 4 fishes in each tank. We have 4 tanks in sector Gamma. We have 4 sharks in sector Gamma.

Since the problem domain is limited, we can possible fix that by adding a constrain that force the number of sharks in sector Gamma to be greater than 4.

@constraint(m,s[3]>=5)

This will result in an answer that that does not violate any of the stated constraints.

We have 3 fishes in each tank. We have 7 tanks in sector Gamma. We have 5 sharks in sector Gamma.

However, this seems like a bit of kludge. The proper way go about it is represent the number of sharks in the each sector as binary array, with only one value set to 1.

# Number of sharks in each sector @variable(m, s[i=1:3,j=1:7], Bin)

We will have to modify our constraint block accordingly

@constraints m begin # Constraint 2 sharks[i=1:3], sum(s[i,:]) == 1 u_sharks[j=1:7], sum(s[:,j]) <=1 # uniquness # Constraint 4 sum(nt) <= 13 # Constraint 5 s[1,2] == 1 nt[1] == 4 # Constraint 6 s[2,4] == 1 nt[2] == 2 end

We invent a new variable array `st`

to capture the number of sharks in each sector. This simply obtained by multiplying the binary array by the vector

@variable(m,st[i=1:3],Int) @constraint(m, st.==s*collect(1:7))

We rewrite our last constraint as

# Constraints 1 & 3 @NLconstraint(m, st[1]+st[2]+st[3]+n*(nt[1]+nt[2]+nt[3]) == 50)

After the model has been *solved*, we extract our output for the number of sharks.

sharks_in_each_sector=getvalue(st)

…and we get the correct output.

This problem might have been an overkill for using a full blown mixed integer non-linear optimizer. It can be solved by a simple table as shown in the video. However, we might not alway find ourselves in such a fortunate position. We could have also use mixed integer quadratic programming solver such as Gurobi which would be more efficient for that sort of problem. Given the small problem size, efficiency hardly matters here.

]]>But if you were to condense Earth’s entire existence into 24hrs, then we would have only been on this planet for a mere… 3 seconds !

Our minds have enabled us to think deeply about our purpose in life and to do incredible things. But we have become so blinded by the power we have that we have not looked at what insidious and irrevocable damage we have caused to the balance nature.

Do you know what is the most dangerous flaw our human minds have kept for the last 200,000 of our existence?…

Not knowing where to look or whom to blame for our mistakes. We have just become so ignorant, so blinded, and so utterly self-centered about only our well-being that we have not noticed issues like increasing famine cases around Nigeria and Somalia, or the rapid occurrences of some of the largest storms ever seen. So pernicious we have become to ourselves. How have we not noticed this catastrophic conundrum at all ?

Sure we have accomplished some of the most incredible feats of innovation in the natural world but we have not at all been wise enough to contemplate on the consequences our triumph cost. It’s good to be smart but not too smart for you own good.

We have been under the highly foolish illusion that what our minds and ideas have enabled us to do would not exponentially changing many highly essential factors for the greater good of our species and all life on Earth.

We have believed for so long that supposedly “small” problems that don’t fall into our best interests at heart should not be look at seriously for even the smallest or seemingly “simple” could bring the down fall of us all.

Do you want what is the deadliest disease ever?

Tuberculosis?

Measles?

Ebola ?

AIDs? *It’s a single, influential idea which makes us blind to what heinous and atrocious things happen by every passing day.

Is it highly ethical of us as a species to fall into the hands of such a vicious free-thinking paralytic? Would it help to just think that with a flick of a finger all of the problems that this crisis that we have fallen into would be solved ?

An idea can be very deadly by it self but there is a much more vicious motivator for simply ignoring the worsening problems we have caused.

We are silenced by payment of money. A bribery which many us might lightly take. Our minds can be easily persuaded into doing any thing by the motivation of payment or wealth. If we are given everything we could possibly need it’s still not enough to content us.

Our greedy and cunning simply want more of this pleasurable wealth. Some people may see a hundred pound not in there hands from there work. I think we have just become slaves to a printed peace of paper.

Such as a humming bird and the nectar which

]]>

`DataFrame`

. I was getting errors it could not properly parse the `latin1`

encoded names.
I tried running

using DataFrames dataT=readtable("example.csv", encoding=:latin1)

but the got this error

ArgumentError: Argument 'encoding' only supports ':utf8' currently.

The solution make use of (StringEncodings.jl)[https://github.com/nalimilan/StringEncodings.jl] to wrap the file data stream before presenting it to the `readtable`

function.

f=open("example.csv","r") s=StringDecoder(f,"LATIN1", "UTF-8") dataT=readtable(s) close(s) close(f)

The `StringDecoder`

generates an `IO`

stream that appears to be `utf8`

for the `readtable`

function.

I was surprised when I came across on Tupper’s formula on twitter. I felt the compulsion to implement it in Julia.

The formula is expressed as

and yields bitmap facsimile of itself.

In [1]:

```
k=big"960 939 379 918 958 884 971 672 962 127 852 754 715 004 339 660 129 306 651 505 519 271 702 802 395 266 424 689 642 842 174 350 718 121 267 153 782 770 623 355 993 237 280 874 144 307 891 325 963 941 337 723 487 857 735 749 823 926 629 715 517 173 716 995 165 232 890 538 221 612 403 238 855 866 184 013 235 585 136 048 828 693 337 902 491 454 229 288 667 081 096 184 496 091 705 183 454 067 827 731 551 705 405 381 627 380 967 602 565 625 016 981 482 083 418 783 163 849 115 590 225 610 003 652 351 370 343 874 461 848 378 737 238 198 224 849 863 465 033 159 410 054 974 700 593 138 339 226 497 249 461 751 545 728 366 702 369 745 461 014 655 997 933 798 537 483 143 786 841 806 593 422 227 898 388 722 980 000 748 404 719"
setprecision(BigFloat,10000);
```

`setprecision`

of `BigFloat`

to be very high, as rounding errors using the default precision does not get us the desired results. The implementation was inspired by the one in Python, but I see Julia a great deal more concise and clearer.

In [2]:

```
function tupper_field(k)
field=Array{Bool}(17,106)
for (ix,x) in enumerate(0.0:1:105.0), (iy,y) in enumerate(k:k+16)
field[iy,107-ix]=1/2<floor(mod(floor(y/17)*2^(-17*floor(x)-mod(floor(y),17)),2))
end
field
end
```

In [3]:

```
f=tupper_field(k);
using Images
img = colorview(Gray,.!f)
```

Out[3]:

I just *inverted* the boolean array here to get the desired bitmap output.

]]>

would show the Fibonacci numbers in order when looking at its decimal output.

On a spreadsheet and most standard programming languages, such output can not be attained due to the limited precision for floating point numbers. If you try this on R or Python, you will get an output of `1e-48`

.

Wolfram alpha,however,allows arbitrary precision.

In Julia by default we get a little better that R and Python

julia> 1/999999999999999999999998999999999999999999999999 1.000000000000000000000001000000000000000000000002000000000000000000000003000002e-48 julia> typeof(ans) BigFloat

We observe here that we are getting the first few Fibonacci numbers . We need more precision to get more numbers. Julia has arbitrary precision arithmetic baked into the language. We can crank up the precision of the `BigFloat`

type on demand. Of course, the higher the precision, the slower the computation and the greater the memory we use. We do that by `setprecision`

.

julia> setprecision(BigFloat,10000) 10000

Reevaluating, we get

julia> 1/999999999999999999999998999999999999999999999999 1.00000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000200000000000000000000000300000000000000000000000500000000000000000000000800000000000000000000001300000000000000000000002100000000000000000000003400000000000000000000005500000000000000000000008900000000000000000000014400000000000000000000023300000000000000000000037700000000000000000000061000000000000000000000098700000000000000000000159700000000000000000000258400000000000000000000418100000000000000000000676500000000000000000001094600000000000000000001771100000000000000000002865700000000000000000004636800000000000000000007502500000000000000000012139300000000000000000019641800000000000000000031781100000000000000000051422900000000000000000083204000000000000000000134626900000000000000000217830900000000000000000352457800000000000000000570288700000000000000000922746500000000000000001493035200000000000000002415781700000000000000003908816900000000000000006324598600000000000000010233415500000000000000016558014100000000000000026791429600000000000000043349443700000000000000070140873300000000000000113490317000000000000000183631190300000000000000297121507300000000000000480752697600000000000000777874204900000000000001258626902500000000000002036501107400000000000003295128009900000000000005331629117300000000000008626757127200000000000013958386244500000000000022585143371700000000000036543529616200000000000059128672987900000000000095672202604100000000000154800875592000000000000250473078196100000000000405273953788100000000000655747031984200000000001061020985772300000000001716768017756500000000002777789003528800000000004494557021285300000000007272346024814100000000011766903046099400000000019039249070913500000000030806152117012900000000049845401187926400000000080651553304939300000000130496954492865700000000211148507797805000000000341645462290670700000000552793970088475700000000894439432379146400000001447233402467622100000002341672834846768500000003788906237314390600000006130579072161159100000009919485309475549700000016050064381636708800000025969549691112258500000042019614072748967300000067989163763861225800000110008777836610193100000177997941600471418900000288006719437081612000000466004661037553030900000754011380474634642900001220016041512187673800001974027421986822316700003194043463499009990500005168070885485832307200008362114348984842297700013530185234470674604900021892299583455516902600035422484817926191507500057314784401381708410100092737269219307899917600150052053620689608327700242789322839997508245300392841376460687116573000635630699300684624818301028472075761371741391301664102775062056366209602692574850823428107600904356677625885484473810507049252476708912581411411405930102594397055221918455182579303309636633329861112681897706691855248316295261201016328488578177407943098723020343826493703204299739348832404671111147398462369176231164814351698201718008635835925499096664087184867000739850794865805193502836665349891529892378369837405200686395697571872674070550577925589950242511475751264321287522115185546301842246877472357697022053e-48

That is looking much better. However it we be nice if we could extract the Fibonacci numbers that are buried in that long decimal. Using the approach in the original blog. We define a function

y(x)=one(x)-x-x^2

and calculate the decimal

a=1/y(big"1e-24")

Here we use the non-standard string literal `big"..."`

to insure proper interpretation of our input. Using `BigFloat(1e-24))`

would first construct at floating point with limited precision and then do the conversion. The initial loss of precision will not be recovered in the conversion, and hence the use of `big`

. Now we extract our Fibonacci numbers by this function

function extract_fib(a) x=string(a) l=2 fi=BigInt[] push!(fi,1) for i=1:div(length(x)-24,24) j=parse(BigInt,x[l+1+(i-1)*24:l+i*24]) push!(fi,j) end fi end

Here we first convert our very long decimal number of a string and they we exploit the fact the Fibonacci numbers occur in blocks that 24 digits in length. We get out output in an array of `BigInt`

. We want to compare the output with *exact* Fibonacci numbers, we just do a quick and non-recursive implementation.

function fib(n) f=Vector{typeof(n)}(n+1) f[1]=f[2]=1; for i=3:n+1 f[i]=f[i-1]+f[i-2] end f end

Now we compare…

fib_exact=fib(200); fib_frac=extract_fib(a); for i in eachindex(fib_frac) println(fib_exact[i], " ", fib_exact[i]-fib_frac[i]) end

We get a long sequence, we just focused here on when the discrepancy happens.

... 184551825793033096366333 0 298611126818977066918552 0 483162952612010163284885 0 781774079430987230203437 -1 1264937032042997393488322 999999999999999999999998 2046711111473984623691759 1999999999999999999999997 ...

The output shows that *just before* the extracted Fibonacci number exceeds 24 digits, a discrepancy occurs. I am not quite sure why, but this was a fun exploration. Julia allows me to do mathematical explorations that would take one or even two orders of magnitude of effort to do in any other language.

`ffprobe`

to get the length of a video file. The trouble was the `ffprobe`

was dumping its output to `stderr`

and I wanted to take that output and run it through `grep`

. From a `bash`

shell one would typically run:
ffprobe somefile.mkv 2>&1 |grep Duration

This would result in an output like

Duration: 00:04:44.94, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 128 kb/s

This works because we used `2>&1`

to redirect `stderr`

to `stdout`

which would in be piped to `grep`

.

If you were try to run this in Julia

julia> run(`ffprobe somefile.mkv 2>&1 |grep Duration`)

you will get errors. Julia does not like pipes `|`

inside the backticks command (for very sensible reasons). Instead you should be using Julia’s `pipeline`

command. Also the redirection `2>&1`

will not work. So instead, the best thing to use is and instance of `Pipe`

. This was not in the manual. I stumbled upon it in an issue discussion on GitHub. So a good why to do what I am after is to run.

julia> p=Pipe() Pipe(uninit => uninit, 0 bytes waiting) julia> run(pipeline(`ffprobe -i somefile.mkv`,stderr=p))

This would create a pipe object `p`

that is then used to capture `stderr`

after the execution of the command. Next we need to close the input end of the pipe.

julia> close(p.in)

Finally we can use the pipe with `grep`

to filter the output.

julia> readstring(pipeline(p,`grep Duration`)) " Duration: 00:04:44.94, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 128 kb/s\n"

We can then do a little regex magic to get the duration we are after.

julia> matchall(r"(\d{2}:\d{2}:\d{2}.\d{2})",ans)[1] "00:04:44.94"

Exploiting Julia fantastic type system and very cool index handling, I put implements that sandpile addition operator demonstrated in the Numberphile video.

The notebook can be found here.

]]>